Renaissance -Some Key Facts
October 02, 2016

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  • The term renaissance means rebirth.
  • The period of renaissance ranges from 14th century and lasted till 17th centurry.
  • It was basically a revival of interest in the learning of the classical civilisation of Greece and Rome.
  • It began from italy becuse the trade with the eastern world had brought maximum prosperity to italian cities which virtually controlled this trade.
  • It is generally held that the modern period in the world history begins with the Renaissance Movement.
  • Renaissance when seen  broadly inculates developments made in the field of art , literature, painting, phiosphy, science and politics.


  • Fall Of Constantinople- The capture of Constantinople by the Turks which was regarded as the centre of ancient Greek learning led to the change called  Renaissance. Hundreds of Greek scholars left turkey and migrated to European cities .They brought their precious literary documents with them.This caused the revival of interest in the study of old Greek texts and ancient law and philosphy.
  • Several Inventions and Discoveries-

a) The most important was the invention of printing press. The credit for this invention goes to gutenberg and caster . This helped in the spread of modern ideas at a much faster rate and with relative ease.

b) The discovery of Mariner Compass by Marco Polo greatly encouraged maritime and widened the outlook of the people of Europe.

c) The invention of gunpowder in the 14th century and its extensive use by the kings made them powerful and independent of nobility.

  • End Of Feudalism- The decline of feudalism during the 13th and 14th centuries led to the growth of towns, increase in the power of kings, rise of middle class comprising traders and craftsmen.All these led the people to realise their potential to the fullest extent.
  • Impact of Crusaders- The war between the Europeans and Saljuk Turks for the occupation of Jerusalem led the Europeans to come in contact with the East.They were greatly influenced by the culture and civilisation which was based on reason.They got the opportunity to study the philosphy of Aristotle and Plato.
  • Decline in the power of church- The corrupt practices of church forced the rulers as well as masses to refute its ideology. The church lost its influence in the 13th and 14th centuries .
  • Rise of prosperous merchant class- The rise of prosperous merchant clase  was ensured due to increased trade relations with the East. The merchant class became the patrons of art and literature . The italian cities of Florence , Venice and Milan became the centres of learning.
  • Royal Patronage- The state patronage also contributed to the growth of Renaissance Movement. For instance , the French ruler Francis I, Henry VIII and his daughter Queen Elizabeth I, Charles V king of Spain, Christian II of Denmark greatly patronised scholars, arists and painters.
  • Geographical Voyages - IN 1498, the Portuguese sailor Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India . The growth of trade led to birth of new cities. The liberal environment of the cities promoted new ideas.
  • Renaissance broadened the outlook of the masses.The quest for rationalism increased and the blind acceptance of theories was no longer accepted.
  • The Renaissance greatly improved and encouraged education. The universities were established at Louvian(in Netherlands), St.Andrews(Scotland), Upsala(sweden), Freiburg and Wittenburg(in Germany) and elsewhere.
  • It aroused interest in Humanism. Human was accepted as the most important creation of man and emphasis was given on present life rather than on life after death.
  • Renaissance helped in the promotion of Vernacular languages. The sacred languages like greek, Hebrew, Latin were replaced in scholastic and reliqious literature by common European Lanquages.
  • Achievements in the Fields of Arts,Literature,and Sciences- Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michealangelo,Michael Angelio Durer were a few celebrated painters of this period. In the field of literature Dante Divine Comedy, Machiaveli The Prince, Thomas More Utopia,Don Quixote by Cervantes, essays of Francis Bacon were the most renowned literature .
  • Renaissance helped in the evolution of strong monarchial form of government in Europe. The decline of Feudalism, decrease in the influence of church led to growth of Nation States in Europe.
  • Achievements in the field of Science-Mariner Compass by Marco Polo, Copernicus Theory regarding open universe, Telescope by Gailielo, De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Vesalius in which he for the first time provided the complete anatomy of the human body, Blood Circulation Pattern by William Harvey, Newton Law Of Gravitation, Kepler explanation regarding planet movement round the sun provided the much needed lead in science and technology.